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维基百科清醒梦

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This article is about the psychologicalphenomenon. For the Franz Ferdinand song, see Lucid Dreams. For the Tinashesong, see Nightride. For the South Korean film, see Lucid Dream (film).
本文讨论的是一种心理现象。Franz Ferdinand出过一首叫清醒梦的歌;Tinashe也出过一首叫夜行的歌,韩国更有一部电影就叫清醒梦。


A lucid dream is a dream during which thedreamer is aware of dreaming. During lucid dreaming, the dreamer may be able toexert some degree of control over the dream characters, narrative, andenvironment.[1][2][3]
清醒梦是一种梦境,在梦境中做梦者能否意识到自己在做梦。在做清醒梦的时候,做梦者能够在一定程度上控制参与梦境的角色、故事走线和环境。[1][2][3]


Contents
1Etymology
2History
2.1 Ancient
2.2 17th century
2.3 19th century
2.4 20th century
3Scientific research
3.1 Skepticism
4Definition
5Suggested applications
5.1 Treating nightmares
5.2 Creativity
6See also
7References
8Further reading

内容
1词源
2历史
2.1 古典
2.2 17世纪
2.3 19世纪
2.4 20世纪
3科学研究
3.1 批判学
4定义
5建议的应用
5.1 治疗噩梦
5.2 创造力
6可参见
7参考文献
8 更多阅读


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1楼2018-01-03 14:12
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    2楼2018-01-03 14:17
      Skepticism
      怀疑论
      Some skeptics of lucid dreaming suggestedin the 1970s that it is not a state of sleep, but of brief wakefulness, or"micro-awakening".[40][41] Experiments by Stephen LaBerge used"perception of the outside world" as a criterion for wakefulnesswhile studying lucid dreamers, and their sleep state was corroborated withphysiological measurements.[23]
      一些对清醒梦的怀疑论者在20世纪70年代提出,它不是一种睡眠状态,而是短暂的清醒或“微觉醒”[40] [41]。Stephen LaBerge的实验使用“外部世界的感知”作为研究清醒梦者觉醒的标准,并且他们的睡眠状态通过生理测量得到证实[23]。

      Philosopher Norman Malcolm has argued againstthe possibility of checking the accuracy of dream reports, pointing out that'the only criterion of the truth of a statement that someone has had a certaindream is, essentially, his saying so.'[42]
      哲学家Norman Malcolm认为不可能检查梦想报告的准确性,并指出“对于某个人做了某个梦的陈述的真实性的唯一标准,基本上就是根据他所说的而已。[42]

      Definition
      定义
      Paul Tholey, a German oneirologist andGestalt theorist, laid the epistemological basis for the research of luciddreams, proposing seven different conditions of clarity that a dream mustfulfill in order to be defined as a lucid dream:[43][44][45]
      德国的唯一主义学者和格式塔理论家Paul Tholey为清醒梦的研究奠定了认识论的基础,提出了七种不同的条件来阐述梦想必须满足这些条件才能被定义为一个清醒梦:[43] [44] [45]
      Awareness of the dream state (orientation)
      Awareness of the capacity to make decisions
      Awareness of memory functions
      Awareness of self
      Awareness of the dream environment
      Awareness of the meaning of the dream
      Awareness of concentration and focus (the subjective clarity of thatstate).
      梦境状态的意识(方向)
      决策能力的意识
      记忆功能的意识
      自我的意识
      梦境环境的意识
      梦境意义的意识
      专注焦点的意识(该状态的主观阐述)

      Later, In 1992, a study by Deirdre Barrettexamined whether lucid dreams contained four "corollaries" oflucidity:
      之后,在1992年,Deirdre Barrett在其研究中研究了是否清醒梦包含4种推论:

      The dreamer is aware that they are dreaming
      Objects disappear after waking
      Physical laws need not apply in the dream
      The dreamer has a clear memory of the waking world
      做梦者意识到他们在做梦
      醒来后发现梦中主体消失
      物理定律不一定适用于梦境
      造梦者对觉醒的世界有清晰的记忆。

      Barrett found less than a quarter oflucidity accounts exhibited all four.[46]
      Barrett发现不到1/4的清醒梦情况涵盖了以上四种推论。

      Subsequently, Stephen LaBerge studied theprevalence of being able to control the dream scenario among lucid dreams, andfound that while dream control and dream awareness are correlated, neitherrequires the other. LaBerge found dreams that exhibit one clearly without thecapacity for the other; also, in some dreams where the dreamer is lucid andaware they could exercise control, they choose simply to observe.[1]
      随后,Stephen LaBerge研究了在清醒梦中控制梦境情景的普遍性,发现虽然梦境控制和梦境意识是相关的,但是两者都不需要对方而独立存在。LaBerge发现如梦境中体现了其中一项能力,就无法实现另一项能力。另外,在一些梦中,造梦者是清醒的,并且意识到他们可以控制和选择简单的观察。[1]


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      5楼2018-01-03 14:21
        Suggested applications
        Treating nightmares
        建议的应用
        治疗噩梦
        It has been suggested that sufferers ofnightmares could benefit from the ability to be aware they are indeed dreaming.A pilot study was performed in 2006 that showed that lucid dreaming therapytreatment was successful in reducing nightmare frequency. This treatmentconsisted of exposure to the idea, mastery of the technique, and lucidityexercises. It was not clear what aspects of the treatment were responsible forthe success of overcoming nightmares, though the treatment as a whole was saidsuccessful.[47]
        有人认为,噩梦患者可以从意识到自己确实在做梦的能力中受益。2006年进行的一项初步研究表明,清醒梦的疗法在减少噩梦频率方面是成功的。这种治疗包括敞开这一想法,掌握这项技术和进行清醒的练习。目前还不清楚哪些方面的治疗能有效克服噩梦,尽管这个治疗方案从整体上看被认为是是成功的。[47]

        Australian psychologist Milan Colic hasexplored the application of principles from narrative therapy to clients' luciddreams, to reduce the impact not only of nightmares during sleep, but alsodepression, self-mutilation, and other problems in waking life. Colic foundthat therapeutic conversations could reduce the distressing content of dreams,while understandings about life—and even characters—from lucid dreams could beapplied to their lives with marked therapeutic benefits.[48]
        澳大利亚心理学家Milan Colic探讨了叙事治疗原理在客户清醒梦的应用,不仅减少了睡眠中噩梦的影响,还减少了抑郁症,自残和其他觉醒生活中的问题。Colic发现,治疗性的谈话可以减少梦中令人不安的内容,而对清醒梦的生活甚至人物的理解可以被应用到他们的生活中,并带来显著的治疗效果。[48]

        Psychotherapists have applied luciddreaming as a part of therapy. Studies have shown that by inducing a lucid dreamrecurrent nightmares can be alleviated. It is unclear whether this alleviationis due to lucidity or the ability to alter the dream itself. A 2006 studyperformed by Victor Spoormaker and Van den Bout evaluated the validity of luciddreaming treatment (LDT) in chronic nightmare sufferers.[49] LDT is composed ofexposure, mastery and lucidity exercises. Results of lucid dreaming treatmentrevealed that the nightmare frequency of the treatment groups had decreased. Inanother study, Spoormaker, Van den Bout, and Meijer (2003) investigated luciddreaming treatment for nightmares by testing eight subjects who received aone-hour individual session, which consisted of lucid dreaming exercises.[50]The results of the study revealed that the nightmare frequency had decreasedand the sleep quality had slightly increased.
        心理治疗师将清醒梦作为治疗的一部分。研究表明,通过诱导清醒梦可以缓解复发性的恶梦。目前尚不清楚这种缓解是由于清醒梦还是改变梦本身的能力。Victor Spoormaker和Van den Bout在2006年进行的一项研究评估了针对慢性噩梦患者的清醒梦治疗(LDT)的有效性[49]。 LDT由敞开心扉,掌握和清晰的练习组成。清醒梦的治疗结果显示,治疗组的噩梦频率下降。在另一项研究中,Spoormaker,Van den Bout和Meijer(2003)通过测试八个受试者在一个小时的个人会议中对于清醒梦的练习,来调查清醒梦对于噩梦的治疗[50]。研究结果显示,噩梦频率下降,睡眠质量略有上升。

        Holzinger, Klösch, and Saletu managed apsychotherapy study under the working name of ‘Cognition during dreaming – atherapeutic intervention in nightmares’, which included 40 subjects, men and women,18–50 years old, whose life quality was significantly altered bynightmares.[51] The test subjects were administered Gestalt group therapy and24 of them were also taught to enter the state of lucid dreaming by Holzinger.This was purposefully taught in order to change the course of their nightmares.The subjects then reported the diminishment of their nightmare prevalence from2–3 times a week to 2–3 times per month.
        Holzinger,Klösch和Saletu以“梦中认知 - 恶梦中的治疗干预”为名进行了一项心理治疗研究,其中包括40名男性和女性,年龄在18-50岁之间,其生活质量受到恶梦的严重影响[51]。受试者采用格式塔组治疗,其中24人也被教授进入Holzinger清醒梦的状态。经过有目的的教导,以改变他们的噩梦的过程。然后受试者报告他们的噩梦发生率从每周2-3次减少到每月2-3次。


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        6楼2018-01-03 14:22
          Creativity
          创造力
          In her book The Committee of Sleep, DeirdreBarrett describes how some experienced lucid dreamers have learned to rememberspecific practical goals such as artists looking for inspiration seeking a showof their own work once they become lucid or computer programmers looking for ascreen with their desired code. However, most of these dreamers had manyexperiences of failing to recall waking objectives before gaining this level ofcontrol.[52]
          在Deirdre Barrett的《睡眠委员会》一书中,描述了一些有经验的清醒梦者如何学会记住具体的实践目标,比如寻求灵感的艺术家,一旦变得清醒起来就寻求自己的作品展示,或者电脑程序员寻找有他们想要的代码的显示屏幕。然而,大多数造梦者在获得这种控制水平之前都没能在他们清醒时回忆起具体目标。

          See also
          可参见
          Active imagination
          Astral projection
          Dream yoga
          Pre-lucid dream
          Sleep paralysis
          Yoga nidra
          主动想象
          星体投影
          梦境瑜伽
          清醒前的梦境
          睡眠瘫痪
          瑜伽尼达拉


          参考文献


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          7楼2018-01-03 14:25
            【梦阁英语学习小组荣誉出品】
            作者:Wikipedia
            翻译:Clair
            审核:
            原帖地址:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucid_dream


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            8楼2018-01-03 14:25